Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension

We have given reading comprehension for practice. Candidates can practice reading comprehension here.

 

Passage – 1

Culture is the cultivation of a plant or garden, not the eradication of its roots, it is an understanding of the roots and seeds, their patient care and instructed nourishment. Culture is not knowledge, nor is it art, still less is its acquaintance with literature and art. By culture I mean first of all what the anthropologists mean; the way of life of a particular people living together in one place. That culture is made visible in their arts, in their social system, in their habits and customs, in their religion. It is an aggregate of customs, institutions, manners, standards, tastes, morals and beliefs. Now, these are transmitted rather by the family than by the school, hence when family life fails to play its part, we must expect our culture to deteriorate. It is a delusion to think that the maladies of the modern world can be put right by a system of instruction. On the contrary, common universal education, by lowering standards, morals and tastes to a denominator, and by sharpening the wits rather than disciplining character, tends to breakdown existing checks and balances. Education should be the drawing forth of potential values, it should not be the destruction of the safeguards that tradition places around young egos naturally inclined to wilful and precarious flights.

1. The writer uses the term ‘culture’ to refer to
(a) the cultivation of a plant or garden by a community
(b) one’s acquaintance with literature and art
(c) one’s acquisition of knowledge
(d) the way of life of a particular people living together in one place
2. The passage universal education suggests that
(a) is, in fact, aggravating the existing problems of the modern world
(b) is the solution to the problems in the modern world
(c) would prevent us from transmitting culture to the future generation
(d) would help retain the cultural values
3. The culture of a community is said to deteriorate when
(a) there is a fall in its educational standards
(b) the family life fails to play its part
(c) there is universal education
(d) it adopts the modern system of instruction
4. The culture of a community is transmitted
(a) more by school than the family
(b) more by the family than school
(c) equally by both
(d) by the peer group
5. According to the passage, education is the
(a) sharpening of wits
(a) tapping and encouraging the inherent values in man
(c) the substitution of old traditions with new ones
(d) the development of moral standards

 

Passage – 2

There are some men who seem to be always on the lookout for trouble and, to tell the truth, they are seldom disappointed. Listening to such men one would think that this world is one of the stormiest and most disagreeable places. Yet, after all it is not such a bad place and the difficulty is often in the man who is too thin-skinned. On the other hand, the man who goes out
expecting people to be like himself, kind and brotherly, will be surprised at the kindness he meets even in the most unlike quarters. A smile is apt to be met with a responsive smile while the sneer is just as apt to provoke a snarl. Men living in the same neighbourhood may live vastly different lives. But it is not the neighbourhood which is quarrelsome, but the man within us. And we have it in our power to  change our neighbourhood into a pleasant one by simply changing our own ways.

1. The passage is about
(a) our disagreeable and hostile world
(b) a kindly and pleasant world
(c) our indifferent and unresponsive world
(d) the world and what one makes of it
2. “………… they are seldom disappointed”. The statement denotes that such men
(a) welcome difficulties as a morale booster
(b) do not have to face any trouble
(c) manage to keep unruffled in the face of discomforts
(d) generally do not fail to come across troubles
3. The author’s own view of the world is that it is
(a) one of the loveliest and quietest places
(b) an unpleasant and turbulent place
(c) one’s own excessive sensitivity that makes it a bad place
(d) a sordid place for those who u suffer in life

4. Which of the following is opposite in meaning to the expression ‘thin-skinned’ as used in the passage?
(a) Insensitive
(b) Intelligent
(c) Awkward
(d) Obstinate
5. “On  the, hand …………. unlikely other quarters”. shows that The statement people’s reaction to our attitude is
(a) generally indifferent
(b) surprisingly responsive
(c) often adverse
(d) mainly favourable

 

Passage – 3

Directions: Read the following letter carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words in the letter have been printed in italics to help you locate them easily for answering some of the questions.

Dear Mr. Kapdawalla, We certainly agree with you that it is inconvenient to run a home without a washing machine. For that reason, we have lost no time in investigating the the source of the trouble in your machine. The report from our repair department indicates that your washing machine has a burned-out bearing which was caused by the fact that it has not been oiled. Although we guarantee our washing machines for three years against all defects workmanship in or materials, we cannot assume responsibility for repairs necessitated by improper care. We, therefore, cannot grant your request to repair your machine without charges. We shall, however, be glad to put your washing machine in brand new condition at the actual cost of the parts i.e.325. When your machine is returned to you, it will be completely oiled and ready to operate. Then, if you follow the directions for oiling, which are given on page 3 of your instruction book, you will get years of trouble-free service from your washing machine. Just mail the enclosed postcard today, authorising us to proceed with the repairs. We return your
machine on Saturday.

Yours sincerely,
Mr. M.N. Laundrywalla

1. This letter seems to be a reply to
(a) a customer’s letter requesting the dealer to pay compensation for defective machine
(b) a letter for replacement of an old washing machine with a brand new one
(c) a request to a dealer to send his mechanic for repairing a washing machine
(d) a letter requesting the dealer for free repair of a washing machine
(e) an inquiry about the probable defects in a washing machine

Ans. d

 

2. The washing machine needed repair due to
(a) faulty material
(b) overloading
(c) improper care
(d) over use
(e) defective workmanship

Ans. c

3. From the letter, it can be inferred that Mrs. Kapdawalla
(a) had been very careful in maintaining the washing machine

(b) had been running her home without a washing machine for the past three years
(c) had purchased the washing machine during the past three years
(d) was put to a lot of inconvenience due to the dealer’s fault
(e) had paid 325 to the dealer for the repairs done by him

Ans. c

4. “Your request” (2nd para, last sentence) refers to
(a) Mr. Laundrywalla’s request for return of the authorisation card
(b) Mrs. Kapdawalla’s request for brand washing new a machine
(c) a customer’s request to a trader for free repair of a washing machine
(d) Mrs. Kapdawalla’s request for increasing the guarantee period
(e) None of the above

Ans. c

5. Mr. Laundrywalla rejected Mrs. Kapdawalla’s request because
(a) she had not purchased the washing machine from his shop
(b) the guarantee period of the washing machine was over
(c) the defect in the washing machine was due to faulty material provided
(d) the defect occurred due to careless maintenance by his repair department
(e) the machine had gone out of order due to improper care

Ans. a

6. It appears that when the above letter was written, the washing machine was
(a) at Mrs. Kapdawalla’s residence
(b) at Mr. Laundrywalla’s repairs shop
(c) yet to be examined to find out the defect
(d) already repaired by Mr. Laundrywalla’s mechanics back
(e) sent to Mrs. Kapdawalla’s residence

Ans. b

Directions: Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the given word as used in the passage.
7. SOURCE
(a) Gravity (b) Origin
(c) Effect
(d) Remedy
(e) Maintenance

Ans. b

8. NECESSITATED
(a) Permitted
(b) Imposed
(c) Demanded
(d) Enforced
(e) Warranted

Ans. d

Directions: Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word given in capitals as used in the passage.
9. INCONVENIENT
(a) Possible
(b) Easily
(c) Desirable
(d) Troublesome
(e) Comfortable

Ans. e

10. GRANT

(a) Reject
(c) Send
(e) Suppose

(b) Stop
(d) Accept

Ans. a

 

Passage – 4

Primitive man was probably more concerned with fire as a source of warmth and as a means of cooking food than as a source of light. Before he discovered less laborious ways of making fire, he had to preserve it, and whenever he went on a journey he carried a firebrand with him. His discovery that the firebrand, from which the torch may very well have developed, could be used for illumination was probably incidental to the primary purpose of preserving a flame.

Lamps, too, probably developed by accident. Early man may have had his first conception of a lamp, while watching a twig or fibre burning in the molten fat dropped from a roasting carcass. All he had to do was to fashion a vessel to contain fat and float a lighted reed in it. Such lamps, which were made of hollowed stones or sea shells, have persisted in identical form up to quite recent times.

1. Primitive man’s most important use for fire was
(a) to provide warmth
(b) to cook food
(c) to provide light
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. d
2. The firebrand was used to
(a) prevent accidents
(b) provide light
(c) scare animals
(d) save labour
Ans. b
3. By ‘primary the author means
(a) primitive
(b) fundamental
(c) elemental (d) essential
Ans. d
4. Lamps probably developed through mere
(a) hazard
(b) fate
(c) chance
(d) planning
Ans. c
5. Early lamps were made by
(a) using a reed as a wick in the fat
(b) letting-a reed soak the fat
(c) putting the fat in a shell and lighting it
(d) floating a reed in the sea-shell
Ans. a

 

 

Passage-5

Power and possession have been central pursuits of modern civilisation for a long time. They blocked out or distorted other features of the western renaissance (revival) which promised so much for humanity. What people have been and are still being taught to prize are money, success, control over the lives of others, acquisition of more and more objects. Modern social, political, and economic systems, whether capitalist, fascist or communist, reject in their working the basic principle that the free and creative unfoldment of every man, woman and child is the true measure of the worth of any society. Such infoldment requires understanding and imagination, integrity and cooperation among harmony between compassion, people and human the species and the rest of nature. Acquisitiveness and the pursuit of power have made the modern man an aggressor against everything that is non-human, an exploiter and appressor of those who are poor, meek and unorganised, pathological type which hates and distrusts the world and suffers from both acute loneliness and false pride.

The need for a new renaissance is deeply felt by those sensitive and conscientious men and women who not only perceive the dimensions of the crisis of our age but who also realise that only through conscious and cooperative human effort may this crisis be met and probably even overcome.

1. The author appears to be advocating which of the following approaches to be adopted by the society?
(a) Capitalistic
(b) Communist
(c) Humanistic
(d) Authoritarian
(e) Socialist

Ans. c

2. Which of the following best describes the behaviour of modern man?
(a) Imaginative and sympathetic
(b) Cruel and greedy Conscientious
(c) and cooperative
(d) Perceptive and creative
(e) Seeker of truth and non-violence

Ans. b

3. According to the passage, why has modern man turned out as an enemy of everything that is non-human?
(a) He hates and distrusts other human beings
(b) Non-human have refused cooperation to human beings
(c) He has been dominated by drives of acquisitiveness and power
(d) He consciously practises spirit of cooperation
(e) None of the above

Ans. c

4. Which of the following statements is not true in context of the given passage?
(a) Power and possession go hand in hand
(b) There is a need for a new renaissance
(c) Poor and weak people are oppressed by the modern man
(d) The modern man is not individualist
(e) Western renaissance had held so much promise for the mankind

Ans. d

5.The real attainment of any society can be adjudged by which of the following?
(a) The encouragement for acquisitive tendencies
(b) Total victimisation of conscientious persons
(c) The degree of freedom for pursuing more and more power
(d) Strict adherence to authoritarian structure
(e) None of the above

Ans. e

6. Which of the following is one of the requirements bringing out the best in man?
(a) Money
(b) Success
(c) Power
(d) Understanding
(e) Acquisitiveness

Ans. d

7. The western renaissance could not make total impact on today’s humanity because
(a) it was conceptually weak
(b) it was against basic principle
(c) conscientious men opposed it
(d) old civilisation was based on acquisitiveness and control over others
(e) None of the above

 

Ans. e

8. The author hopes that the present crisis can be solved by
(a) devoted individual efforts
(b) different political systems
(c) purpose and collective human efforts
(d) spiritually developed individuals
(e) powerful elite human beings

Ans. a

10. Which of the following is most opposite in meaning to the word ‘central’ as used in the passage?
(a) Lateral
(b) Inadequate
(c) Peripheral (d) Major
(e) Insignificant

Ans. c

11. Which of the following is most nearly the same in meaning as the word ‘rest’ as used in the passage?
(a) Partial
(b) Remaining
(d) All
(c) Relax
(e) Everything

Ans. b

12. Which of the following is most opposite in meaning to the word ‘deeply’ as used in the passage?
(a) Widely (b) Superficially
(d) Openly
(c) Wrongly
(e) Intensely

 

Ans. b

13. Which of the following is most nearly the same in meaning as the word ‘met’ as used in the passage?
(a) Introduced
(b) Found
(c) Dealt with
(d) Discovered
(e) Satisfied with

Ans. e

 

 

Passage – 6

Man is not destined to vanish. He can be killed, but he cannot be destroyed, because his soul is deathless and his spirit is irrepressible. Therefore, though the situation seems dark in the context of the confrontation between the super powers, the silver lining is provided by the amazing phenomenon that the very nations which have spent incalculable resources and and energy for the of deadly weapons are production desperately trying to find out how they might never be used. They threaten each other, intimidate each other and go to the brink, but before the fatal hour arrives they withdraw from the brink.

1. Which of the following correctly expresses the author’s view?
(a) Huge stockpiles of destructive weapons have so far saved mankind from a catastrophe
(b) Mankind is heading towards complete destruction
(c) Nations in possession of huge stockpiles of lethal weapons are trying hard to avoid actual conflict
(d) Super powers have at least realised the need for abandoning the production of lethal weapons

 

Ans. c

2. Irrepressible’ in the second sentence means
(a) unrestrainable
(b) oppressive
(c) strong
(d) incompatible

 

Ans. a

3. The phrase ‘go to the brink’ in the passage means
(a) declare war on each other
(b) negotiate for peace
(c) retreating from extreme danger
(d) advancing to the stage of war but not engaging in it

 

Ans. d

4. The author’s main point is that
(a) man’s destiny is not fully clear or visible
(b) man’s safety is assured by the delicate balance of power in terms of nuclear weapons
(c) human society will survive despite the serious threat of total annihilation
(d) man’s soul and spirit cannot be destroyed even by the super powers

 

Ans. c

 

5. Which of the following best expresses the theme of the above passage?
(a) Mounting cost of modern weapons
(b) Man’s desire to survive inhibits use of deadly weapons
(c) Threats and intimidation between super powers
(d) Destruction of mankind is inevitable

Ans. d

 

 

Passage – 7

The history of literature really began long before man learned to write. Dancing was the earliest of the arts. Man danced for joy round his primitive camp fire after the defeat and slaughter of his enemy. He yelled and shouted as he danced and gradually the yells and shouts became coherent and caught the measure of the dance and thus the first war song was sung. As the idea of God developed prayers were framed. The songs and prayers became traditional and were repeated from one generation to another, each generation adding something of its own.

As man slowly grew more civilised, he was compelled to invent some method of writing by three urgent necessities. There were certain things that it was dangerous to forget and which, therefore, had to be recorded. It was often necessary to communicate with persons who were some distance away and it was necessary to protect one’s property by making tools, cattle and so on, in some distinctive manner. So man taught himself to write and having learned to write purely for utilitarian reasons he used this new method for preserving his war songs and his prayers. Of course ancient among these peoples, there were only a very few individuals who learned to write, and only a few could read what was written.

1. Before man invented writing
(a) literature was passed on by word of mouth
(b) prayers were considered literature
(c) literature was just singing and dancing
(d) there was no literature

 

Ans. c

2. As for the war songs and prayers each generation
(a) added something of its own to the stock
(b) blindly repeated the songs and prayers
(c) composed its own songs and prayers
(d) repeated what has handed down to it

 

Ans. c

3. The first war-song
(a) was inspired by God
(b) developed spontaneously
(c) was a song traditionally handed down
(d) was composed by leading dancers

 

Ans. b

4. The war song evolved out of
(a) creative inspiration
(b) there was no literature
(c) artistic urge
(d) yelling and shouting

 

Ans. d

5. Man invented writing because he wanted
(a) to be artistic
(b) to write war song
(c) to write literature
(d) to record and communicate

 

Ans. d

6. The word ‘measure’ in the context of the passage means
(a) weight
(b) rhythm
(c) size
(d) quantity

Ans. b

 

 

Passage – 8

Ernest Rutherford was the son of a Scot emigrant to New Zealand. His parents had 12 children, of whom Ernest was the fourth. His education was in a state primary school from which children at the age of 13 could get grants of scholarships to secondary schools and to the universities. Rutherford had no intention of following an academic career. He was no book-worm. He was good in any rough-and-tumble and a keen football player. But he was good at Latin and he had a passion for music and a mechanical bent of mind. At Nelson College, a state boarding school, he was an outstanding pupil, he sat for a scholarship to Canterbury College and this was because his masters expected it of him, and he won it. There, Rutherford as a student was fascinated by Hertz’s work on radio waves and he began to conduct his own experiments in the cloakroom of the college, where the students, hung their gowns.
1. Rutherford was his parent’s ……. child.
(a) last
(b) only
(c) fourth
(d) second

 

Ans. c

2. Nelson College was a
(a) state boarding school in New Zealand
(b) college in England
(c) school in Scotland
(d) school in the United States

 

Ans. a

3. Rutherford sat for a scholarship test because
(a) he was an outstanding student
(b) he was a book-worm
(c) he thought of following an academic career
(d) his masters wanted him to do that

 

Ans. d

4. Rutherford carried out his own private experiments in
(a) some corner of the cloakroom of Nelson College
(b) some corner of the cloakroom of Canterbury College
(c) a corner of the room allotted to him in the boarding house
(d) in the laboratory of Nelson College

 

Ans. b

5. The phrase ‘mechanical bent’ suggests that Rutherford
(a) was quite mechanical
(b) was devoid of human warmth, emotion, feeling, intelligence, etc.
(c) did things and lived thoughtlessly as a machine
(d) had an aptitude for the science of machinery

Ans. d

 

 

Passage – 9

Speech is a great blessing but it can also be a great curse, for while it helps us to make our intentions and desires known to our fellows, it can also, if we use it carelessly, make our attitude completely misunderstood. A slip of the tongue, the use of an unusual word, or of an ambiguous word, and so on, may create an enemy where we had hoped to win a friend. Again, different classes of people use different vocabularies, and the ordinary speech of an educated man may strike an uneducated listener as pompous. Unwittingly, we may use a word which bears a different meaning to our listener from what it does to men of our own class. Thus speech is not a gift to use lightly without thought, but one which demands careful handling. Only a fool will express himself alike to all kinds and conditions of men.
1. Speech can be a curse, because it can
(a) reveal our intentions
(b) lead to carelessness
(c) hurt others
(d) create misunderstanding

 

Ans. d

2. A ‘slip of the tongue’ means something said
(a) unintentionally
(b) wrongly by chance
(c) without giving proper thought
(d) to hurt another person

 

Ans. c

3. The best way to win a friend is to avoid ……… in speech.
(a) ambiguity (b) verbosity
(c) promposity (d) irony

 

Ans. a

4. While talking to an uneducated person, we should use
(a) polite language
(b) ordinary speech
(c) his vocabulary
(d) simple words

Ans. c

5. If one used the same style of with everyone, one e language would sound
(a) democratic
(b) foolish
(c) boring
(d) flat

Ans. b

 

Passage – 10

Economists, ethicists and business sages persuade us that honesty is the best policy, but their evidence is weak. We hoped to find data that would support their theories and encourage of thus, perhaps higher standards business behaviour. To our surprise, our pet theories failed to stand up. Treachery, we found, can pay. There is no compelling economic reason to tell the truth or keep one’s word punishment for the treacherous in the real world is neither swift nor sure.

Honesty is, in fact, primarily a moral choice. Business people do tell themselves that, in the long run, they will do well by doing good. But there is little factual or logical basis for this conviction. Without values, without a basic preference for right over wrong, trust based on such self-delusion would crumble in the face of temptation. Most of us choose virtue because we want to believe in ourselves and have others’ respect and belief in us.

And for this, we should be happy. We can be proud of a system in which people are honest because they want to be, not because they have to be. Materially, too, trust based on morality provides great advantages. It allows us to join in great and exciting enterprises that we could never undertake if we relied on economic incentives alone. Economists tell us that trust is enforced in the market place through retaliation of reputation. If you violate a trust your victim is apt to seek revenge and others are likely to stop doing business with you, at least under favourable terms. A man or woman with a reputation for fair dealing will prosper. Therefore, profit maximizers are honest. This sounds plausible enough until you look for concrete examples. Cases that apparently demonstrate the awful consequences of trust turns out to be few and weak, while evidence that treachery can pay seems compelling.
1. What did the author find out about the theory that honesty is the best policy?
(a) It is a useless theory
(b) It is correct on many occasions
(c) It is correct for all businessmen
(d) It is correct only occasionally

 

Ans. d

2. Why does the author say that one can be proud of the present situation? Because people are
(a) respect seekers
(b) honest without compulsion
(c) unselfish
(d) self respecting

 

Ans. b

3. What do economists and ethicists want us to believe?
(a) Businessmen are honest only at times
(b) Businessmen should be honest at all times
(c) Businessmen cannot be honest at all times
(d) Businessmen turn dishonest at times

 

Ans. b

4. Which is the material advantage which the author sees in being honest? It permits one to
(a) undertake activities which may not be economically attractive
(b) be honest for the sake of honesty alone
(c) make a lot of profit in various areas
(d) None of the above

 

Ans. a

5. Which of the following is the same in meaning as ‘persuade’ as used in the passage?
(a) try to convince
(b) cheat
(c) motivate
(d) give assurance
(e) give opinion

 

Ans. a

6. Which of the following is false according to the passage?
(a) People are generally honest because it pays in the long run
(b) Virtuous behaviour earns the self respect of others
(c) Economists believe that all businessmen are dishonest
(d) Generally people are honest to earn self-respect

Ans. c

7. Why do businessmen, according to economists, remain honest? Because dishonest businessmen
(a) are flogged in the market place
(b) are always prosecuted
(c) can make more money
(d) cannot stay in business for long

Ans. d

8. The phrase ‘stand up’ as used in the passage means
(a) hold up
(b) get up
(c) supported
(d) get established

 

Ans. d

9. Which is the same in meaning as the word ‘compelling’ as used in the passage?
(a) coercive (b) binding
(c) forceful
(d) mandatory

 

Ans. c

10. Which of the following best describes what the author is trying to point out through the last sentence of the passage ‘Cases that ……… compelling’?
(a) Economists predict correctly
(b) The consequences of dishonesty
(c) The contradictions in the real world
(d) Theories do not seem to be true

 

Ans. d

 

 

Passage – 11

There was a marked difference of quality between the personages who haunted the near bridge of brick and the personages who haunted the far one of stone. Those of lowest character preferred the former, adjoining the town; they did not mind the glare of the public eye. They had been of no account during their successes; and though they might feel dispirited, they had no sense of shame in their ruin. Instead of sighing at their adversaries they spat, and instead of saying the iron had entered into their souls they said they were down on their luck. The miserables who would pause on the remoter bridge were of a politer stamp-persons who did not know how to get rid of the weary time. The eyes of this species were mostly directed over the parapet upon the running water below. While one on the townward bridge did not mind who saw him so, and kept his back to the parapet to survey the passer-by, one on this never faced the road, never turned his head at coming foot-steps, but, sensitive to his own condition, watched the current whenever a stranger approached, as if some stranger fish interested him, though every finned thing had been poached out of the river years before.
(CBI)
1. The two bridges were known
(a) for being haunted places
(b) for their similar design
(c) for attracting dejected people to them
(d) for being equidistant from town

Ans. C

2. People belonging to the lower
strata, in their moments of distress
(a) visited the brick-made bridge
(b) remembered their days of glory
(c) felt ashamed of their failures
(d) dressed shabbily to earn sympathy

Ans. b

3. The bridge of stone was frequented by
(a) those fond of fishing
(b) the sophisticated but luckless
(c) all the sections of society
(d) None of the above

Ans. d

4. The attitude of the lowly and genteel towards strangers was
(a) entirely different
(b) virtually the same
(c) virulently hostile
(d) completely indifferent

Ans. a

5. In this passage, the author is trying to
(a) explain the difference between the construction of two bridges
(b) describe the way different sections of people like to dress
(c) explain the variety of ways in which strangers can be treated
(d) describe how people of different classes behaved when unhappy

Ans. d

Passage – 12
Gandhiji recognised that while all men should have equal opportunity, all did not have the same capacity. Some had the ability to earn more than others. But he believed that those who had talent would be performing the work of society if they used their talent wisely and well. Gandhiji said that he would allow a man of intellect to earn more and not suppress his talent. But it was his view that the bulk of his larger earnings should go to the common fund. Those with talent and opportunity would find their fulfillment as trustees. Gandhiji extended this concept of trusteeship to cover all fields of life.

 

1. The title of the passage should be
(a) Gandhiji’s philosophy
(b) Gandhiji’s services
(c) Gandhiji’s views
(d) Gandhiji’s character

Ans. c

2. According to Gandhiji, one can serve the society
(a) if he worked honestly
(b) if he earned well
(c) if he is talented
(d) if he used his talent wisely

Ans. d

3. Gandhiji never believed in
(a) political equality
(b) social equality
(c) equality of opportunities
(d) complete equality in all respects

Ans. d

4. The meaning of Trustee’ is
(a) person having confidence
(b) person who has charge of property in trust
(c) a number of trusts
(d) state official who executes wills and trusts

Ans. b

 

Passage – 13

Recent advances in science and technology have made it possible for geneticists to find out abnormalities in the unborn foetus and take remedial action to rectify some defects which would otherwise prove to be fatal to the child. Though genetic engineering is still at its infancy, scientists can now predict with greater accuracy a genetic disorder. It is not yet an exact science since they are not in a position to predict when exactly a genetic disorder will set in. While they have not yet been able to change the genetic order of the gene in germs, they are optimistic and are holding out that in the near future they might be successful in achieving this feat. They have, however, acquired the ability in manipulating tissue cells. However, genetic mis-information can sometimes be damaging for it may adversely affect people psychologically. Genetic information may lead to a tendency. to brand some people as inferiors. Genetic information can therefore be abused and its application deciding the sex of the foetus and its subsequent abortion is now hotly debated on ethical lines. But on this issue geneticists cannot be squarely blamed though this charge has often been levelled at them. It is mainly a societal problem. At present genetic engineering is a costly process of detecting disorders but scientists hope to reduce the costs when technology becomes more advanced. This is why much progress in this area has been possible in scientifically advanced and rich countries like the U.S.A., U.K. and Japan. It remains to be seen if in the future this science will lead to the development of a race of supermen or will be able to obliterate disease from this world.

1. Which of the following is the same in meaning as the phrase ‘holding out as used in the passage?
(a) catching
(b) expounding
(c) sustaining
(d) restraining
(e) controlling

Ans. b
2. According to the passage, the question of abortion is
(a) ignored
(b) hotly debated
(c) unanswered
(d) left to the scientists to decide
(e) already settled

Ans. b

3. Which of the following is true regarding the reasons for progress in genetic engineering?
(a) It has become popular to abort female foetuses
(b) Human beings are extremely interested in heredity
(c) Economically sound and scientifically advanced countries can provide the infrastructure for such research
(d) Poor countries desperately need genetic information

Ans. c

4. Which of the following is the same in meaning as the word ‘obliterate’ as used in the passage?
(a) Wipe off
(b) Eradicate
(c) Give birth to
(d) Wipe out
(e) Very literate

Ans. b

5. Which of the following is the opposite in meaning to the word ‘charged’ as used in the passage?
(a) Calm (b) Disturbed
(c) Discharged (d) Settled
(e) Peaceful

Ans. d

6. Which of the following is not true of the genetic engineering movement?
(a) Possibility of abuse
(b) It is confronted by ethical problems
(c) Increased tendency to manipulate gene cells
(d) Acquired ability to detect genetic disorders in unborn babies

(e) Acquired ability to manipulate tissue cells

Ans. c

7. Which of the following is the same in meaning as the word ‘feat’ as used in the passage?
(a) process
(b) focus
(c) fact
(d) possibility
(e) goal

Ans. e

8. Why, according to the author, is genetic misinformation severely damaging?
A. The cost involved is very high.
B. Some people are unjustly branded as inferior.
(a) Only A
(b) Only B
(c) Both A and B
(d) Neither A nor B
(e) Either A or B

Ans. b

9. In the passage, ‘abused’ means
(a) insulted (b) talked about
(c) killed (d) misused
(e) changed

Ans. d

10. At present genetic engineering can rectify all genetic disorders. Is it?
(a) Yes
(b) No
(c) It can do so only in some cases
(d) All of the above

Ans. c

11. Which of the following, according to the author, are the short-comings of genetics in becoming an exact science?
A. Technicians will not be able to determine the time when genetic disorder will set in.
B. Technicians have not been able to manipulate germ cells.
(a) Only A
(b) Only B
(c) Both A and B
(d) Either A or B
(e) Neither A nor B

Ans. c
12. Which of the following is the same in meaning as the word ‘squarely’ as used in the passage?
(a) rigidly
(b) firmly
(c) directly
(d) at right angle
(e) straight

Ans. c

13. Which of the following is not true, according to the passage?
(a) Society is not affected by the research in genetic engineering
(b) Genetic engineers are not able to say some things with certainty
(c) If genetic information is not properly handled, it will create problems
(d) Manipulation of genes is presently done only in tissue cell
(e) Scientists recognise the possibilities of abuse of information related to genetics

Ans. a

14. According to the author, the present state of knowledge about heredity has made geneticists
(a) introspective
(b) accusative
(c) arrogant
(d) optimistic
(e) reckless

Ans. d

15. What is the tone of the author in the last sentence of the passage?
(a) resignation
(b) cautious
(c) relief
(d) concern
(e) unconcern

Ans. b

 

 

Passage – 14

There are certain people, however, with whom one has a right to be bored-people who are self-centred that they cannot listen to anyone else talking, people who engage in long conversations with their cats when visitors are present, people who engage endless reminiscences of their old school when in the company of a man who was at a different school. Such people are boring because they make one feel for the time being an outsider.
1. Boring persons are generally
(a) talkative
(b) quiet
(c) indifferent (d) tedious

Ans. a

2. The most pleasing type of company is where people
(a) chit-chat with you in a patronising mood
(b) listen to you with awe and respect
(c) make you feel that they appreciate your conversation
(d) shower on you a lot of flattering remarks

Ans. c

3. The expression ‘endless reminiscences’ stands for
(a) a boring and lengthy talk
(b) a very long conversation
(c) a long chain of events
(d) an unending recollection of past experiences

Ans. d

4. A person feels an outsider in a company when
(a) everybody wants to know the details about him
(b) he finds that people are talking of things which do not concern him
(c) he does not know anybody
(d) he finds that everyone present there is more intelligent than he is

 

Passage – 16

Democratic societies from the earliest times have expected their governments to protect the weak against the strong. No ‘era of good feeling’ can justify discharging the police force or giving up the idea of public control over concentrated private wealth. On the other hand, it is obvious that a spirit of self-denial and moderation on the part of those who hold economic power will greatly soften the demand for absolute equality. Men are more interested in freedom and security than in an equal distribution of wealth. The extent to which Government must interfere with business, therefore, is not exactly measured by the extent to which economic power is concentrated into a few hands. The required degree of government interference depends mainly on whether economic powers are oppressively used, and on the necessity of keeping economic factors in a tolerable state of balance. But with the necessity of meeting all these dangers and threats to liberty, the powers of government are unavoidably increased, whichever political party may be in office. The growth of government is a necessary result of the growth of technology and of the problems that go with the use of machines and science. Since the government in our nation, must take no more powers to meet its problems, there is no way to preserve freedom except by making democracy more powerful.

(Section Officers)
1. The advent of science and technology has increased the
(a) freedom of people
(b) tyranny of the political parties
(c) powers of the government
(d) chances of economic inequality
2. A spirit of moderation on the economically sound people would make the less privileged
(a) unhappy with the rich people
(b) more interested in freedom and security
(c) unhappy with their lot
(d) clamour less for absolute equality
3. The growth of government is necessitated to
(a) make the rich and the poor happy
(b) curb the accumulation of wealth in a few hands
(c) monitor science and technology
(d) deploy the police force wisely
4. ‘Era of good feeling’ in second sentence 2 refers to
(a) time of prosperity
(b) time of adversity
(c) time without government
(d) time of police atrocities
5. “Tolerable state of balance’ in the last sentence may mean
(a) an adequate level of police force
(b) a reasonable level of economic equality
(c) a reasonable amount of government interference
(d) a reasonable check on economic power

 

Passage – 17

That artificial intelligence quotient should seek to replace the time-tested I.Q. as a measure of perfectly in mental ability is consonance with the present day standards in a plastic society. However, the battle over grey cells whether in human or mechanical minds, whose latest round has found Uncle Sam shedding crocodile tears over Japan’s failure to deliver on its promise to produce a 6 fifth generation computer, may find the Asian Tiger Cubs- The under-35 Japanese researchers- having the last laugh. For, though all the boastful Tokyo talk a decade ago to build 1,000 processor computers to process knowledge – and not merely numbers which is all the Silicon Valley Chips supposedly do – has remained just talk, the 180 young scientists in the 10-year venture have nevertheless made the big brains at Silicon Valley look rather silly with their product which has a yen for logical programming. The jubilation in the Valley may turn to depression when the inexorable logic of this development pulls down Washington from its pedestal of supercomputer supremacy.
(Translator’s Exam)

1. Asian Tiger Cubs are
(a) young Japanese researchers
(b) mechanical minds
(c) the big brains at Silicon Valley
(d) fifth generation computers
Ans. a

2. Uncle Sam reacts to their failure with
(a) sorrow
(b) depression
(c) jubilation
(d) insincere sorrow
Ans. d
3. What have the cubs failed to produce?
(a) Numbers processing computer
(b) Grey cells
(c) The fifth generation computer
(d) A plastic society
Ans. c
4. What have they succeeded in producing?
(a) Grey cells
(b) A fifth generation computer
(c) A knowledge processing computer
(d) A product which has a yen for logical programming
Ans. d
5. How is their success likely to affect Washington’s supremacy?
(a) It is likely to make it look silly
(b) It is likely to dislodge it’
(c) It is likely to have the last laugh
(d) it is likely to produce jubilation in the Valley
Ans. b

 

 

Passage – 18

Books are by far, the most lasting product of human effort. Temples crumble into ruin, pictures and statues decay, but books survive. Time does not destroy the great thoughts which are as fresh today as when they first passed through their authors mind. These thoughts speak to us through the printed page. The only effect of time has been to throw out of currency the bad products. Nothing in literature which is not good can live for long. Good books have always helped man in various spheres of life. No wonder that the world keeps its books with great care.
(NDA)

1. Of the products of human effort, books are the most
(a) enjoyable (b) useful
(c) permanent (d) important
Ans. c
2. Time does not destroy books because they contain.
(a) high ideals
(b) great ideas
(c) useful material
(d) subject-matter for education
Ans. b
3. “To throw out of currency” means
(a) extinguish
(b) forget
(c) destroy
(d) put out of use
Ans. d
4. The world keeps its books with care because
(a) they make us successful
(b) they help us in various spheres of life
(c) they bring great ideas to us
(d) they educate us
Ans. b

 

Passage – 19

Until very recently, it was universally believed that men are congenitally more intelligent than women; even so enlightened a man
as Spinoza decided against votes for women on this ground. Among white men, it is held that white men are by nature superior to men of other colours, and especially to black men; in Japan, on the contrary, it is thought that yellow is the best colour. In Haiti, when they make statues of Christ and Satan, they make Christ black and Satan white. Aristotle and Plato considered superior to Greeks so innately barians that slavery was justified so long as the master was Greek and the slave barbarian.
(I.E.S.)
1. ‘Congenitally’ means
(a) falsely
(b) fantastically
(c) innately
(d) certainly
Ans. c
2. Spinoza decided against votes
for women because according to him
(a) they did not deserve to have votes
(b) they were less educated than men

(c) they were generally unintelligent
(d) they were naturally less gifted with intelligence

Ans. d

3. In Haiti, Christ’s statue is black and Satan’s white because the people there believe that
(a) black was good
(b) all white men are evil
(c) Christ was evil
(d) Satan was good
Ans. b
4. Aristotle and Plato supported slavery because they thought
(a) slaves to be inferior
(b) that the barbarians belonged to Greece
(c) the Greeks to be superior to barbarians
(d) the barbarians to be superior to Greeks

Ans. c
5. The author believes that
(a) colours vary from country-to-country
(b) some colours are superior to other colours
(c) some colours are inferior to other colours
(d) colours have no relevance to superiority
Ans. d

 

Passage – 20

Motivations for ruralism in under developed countries are understandably different from those in developed countries. There, it is a sheer physical necessity for the very act of man’s survival. In the Third World which countries, are predominantly rural, the only lever that can lift human life above its present subhuman level, is rural development. Rural life in such countries has been stagnating for countries on end. Nothing worthwhile has been done to ameliorate the conditions of the rural population which is only slightly different from that of their quadruped counterparts. Ignorance, ill health and poverty have become synonyms of rural life in the undeveloped and underdeveloped countries. But the worst tragedy is that the concerned human populations have taken this state of affairs for granted, as something unalterable, something for which there is no remedy. Every ray of hope has gone out of their lives. In such countries, Rural Development is the inevitable condition of any material or non-material advancement. As such, enlightened sections of all such countries have been taking ever growing interest in the question of Rural Development.

This was also part of the legacy of their freedom struggle. In countries like India, it is well-known that attempts at Rural Development were an inseparable part of the Independence movement. Leaders like Gandhiji realised quite well that Real India lived in her stagnating villages. Cities, which were mostly the products of Western colonialism, were just artificial showpieces. Even there, there were two worlds. The posh areas, where the affluent few, mostly the products and custodians of imperial interest lived, were little islands engulfed by the vast ocean of dirt, represented by the vast majority of people. Cities were by no means unknown to India, but in ancient India, they were integral parts, organically related to the rest of the country and society. But, modern cities are exotic and centres of industrial commercial exploitation. Cities in ancient India were the flowers of cultural and artistic excellence of the nation. modern cities are just parasites, preying on and debilitating the country. Hence, Gandhiji started the ‘Go to Village Movement’ which alone, according to him, could bring freedom to India and sustain it. Rural Development had the pride of place in his strategy for the nation’s freedom. Thus, it had its origin in the freedom struggle.

1. People are are taking taking growing interest in Rural Development because
(a) nothing worthwhile can be done in the near future
(b) they have now become optimistic about it
(c) they have realised the indispensability of it
(d) they have been suffering from severe health problems
Ans. c
2. Which of the following is the lever’ according to the passage?
(a) Upliftment of the rural masses
(b) Enlightenment of certain sections of the society
(c) Non-material advancement
(d) Stagnation of rural life
Ans. a
3. Which of the following is the worst tragedy according to the author?
(a) Lack of realisation of the of rural importance development
(b) Exploitation of the rural people by the city-dwellers
(c) The subhuman condition of the people
Ans. d
(d) The pessimism of the rural people about their own conditions
Ans. d
4. Which of the following statements is not true in the context of the passage?
(a) Most of the rich people dwelling in modern cities are genuinely concerned about Rural Development
(b) Rural Development is a pre-requisite of any other advancement and progress
(c) The rural folk in the Third World countries feel that their subhuman condition cannot be improved
(d) Only rural development can raise the standard of living of people in the Third World countries
Ans. a
5. Rural Development was considered as a part of India’s freedom movement because
(a) Gandhiji was against the Western colonialism
(b) real India was then under the British rule
(c) imperial interest lived only in villages
(d) the country comprised of mainly villages
Ans. d
6. The standard of living of human beings in the Third World countries is
(a) subhuman despite best efforts for improvement
(b) not far better than that of animals
(c) improving very rapidly
(d) immune to any improvement
Ans. b
7. In which of the following aspects were the ancient Indian cities different from the modern ones?
(a) Wealth
(b) Growing population
(c) Trade and Commerce
(d) Oneness with the society
(e) Posh localities
Ans. d
8. Which of the following best describes the two divergent words of the modern cities?
(a) Commercial and industrial exploitation
(b) Patrons of western products and custodians of imperial interests
(c) A few rich people and many poor people
(d) Posh area and affluent people of the

9. Which following statements is true in the context of the passage?
(a) The rural folk are very optimistic about improvement in their condition
(b) In the present context, ignorance, poverty and ill health are inseparable parts of
rural life
(c) Most of the Third World countries are undergoing fast urbanisation
(d) India’s struggle for freedom has been considered as a part of rural development
Ans. b

Directions (10-12): Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the given word as used in the passage.
10. PREDOMINANTLY
(a) extra-ordinarily
(b) mostly
(c) forcefully
(d) undoubtedly

Ans. b
11. ENLIGHTENED
(a) clearly visible
(b) shining brightly
(c) economically privileged
(d) fully awakened
Ans. d

12. SECTIONS
(a) groups of people
(b) combination of units
(c) collection of thoughts
(d) assembly of spectators
Directions (13-15): Choose the word which is opposite in meaning to the given word as used in the passage.
13. AMELIORATE
(a) Expedite
(b) Hasten
(c) Worsen
(d) Lessen
Ans. c
14. ENGULFED
(a) Disfigured
(c) Different
(b) Dislocated
(d) Detached
Ans. d
15. DEBILITATING
(a) Inhabiting
(b) Strengthening
(c) Enfeebling
(d) Occupying
Ans. b

 

Passage – 21
When we are suddenly confronted with any terrible danger, the change of future we undergo is equally great. In some cases fear paralyses us. Like animals, we stand still, powerless to move a step in fright or to lift a hand in defence of our lives, and sometimes we are seized with panic, and again, act more like the inferior animals than rational beings. On the other hand,
frequently in cases of sudden extreme peril, which cannot be escaped by flight, and must be instantly faced, even the most timid men at once as if by miracle, become possessed of the necessary courage, sharp quick apprehension, and swift decision. This is a miracle very common in nature. Man and the inferior animals alike, when confronted with almost certain
death ‘gather resolution from despair but there can really be no trace of so debilitating a feeling in the person fighting, or prepared to fight for dear life. At such times the mind is
clearer than it has ever been; the nerves are steel, there is nothing felt but a wonderful strength and daring. Looking back at certain perilous moments in my own life, I remember them with a kind of joy, not that there was any joyful excitement then; but because they brought me a new experience a new nature, as it were and lifted me for a time above myself.
(C.B.I.)
1. An appropriate title for the. above passage would be
(a) The Will to Fight
(b) The Miracle of Confronting Danger
(c) The Change of Nature
(d) Courage and Panic
Ans. b
2. The author names three different ways in which a man may react to sudden danger. What are they?
(a) He may flee in panic, or fight back or stand still
(b) He may be paralysed with fear, seized with panic or act like an inferior animal
(c) He may be paralysed with fear, or seized with panic, or as if by miracle, become possessed of the necessary courage, and face the danger
(d) He may be paralysed with fear, run away or fight
Ans. c
3. The distinction between ‘inferior animals’ and ‘rational beings’ is that
(a) the former are incapable of fighting
(b) the latter are clever
(c) the latter are stronger
(d) the latter are capable of reasoning things out whereas the former cannot do so
Ans. d
4. Explain the phrase ‘gather resolution from danger’
(a) Find hope and courage
(b) A state of utter hopelessness feels one to fight out the danger
(c) Not to lose hope, but fight
(d) Find courage to face the danger
Ans. b
5. The author feels happy in the recollection of dangers faced and overcome because
(a) they brought him a new experience
(b) they brought him a new experience, and lifted him above himself for a time
(c) he survived his ordeal
(d) he was lucky to be alive
Ans. b

 

Passage – 22

Gandhiji had to travel by train from Durban to Pretoria in connection with his job. Once while travelling by train, he was asked by the white passengers to leave the first class compartment and shift to the van compartment. He refused to do so. Thereafter he was pushed forcibly out of the compartment and his luggage was thrown on the platform. It was winter and he kept
shivering all night. He did not go to the waiting room because the white men sleeping there might insult him. further. This event was a turning point in the life of Gandhiji and he decided to stay back in South Africa and fight against this blatant injustice.
1. The White people asked Gandhiji to abandon the first class compartment because
(a) they wanted to annoy him
(b) they wanted to avenge themselves on Gandhiji
(c) they treated Indians as inferior to them
(d) they were looking for a chance to talk to him
Ans. c
2. Why was he thrown out of the compartment? Because……
(a) he misbehaved with with the Whites
(b) they wanted him to spend the night in the waiting room
(c) they wanted to insult him
(d) he refused to shift to the van compartment
Ans. d
3. Why did he not go to the waiting room to spend the night?
(a) The room was unclean
(b) He wanted to sleep in the open
(c) He was badly hurt and so
couldn’t move to the room
(d) He feared that the White men there might insult him further
Ans. d
4. This event was a turning point in the life of Gandhiji’. The event being talked about here is
(a) Gandhiji’s being ill treated by the Whites
(b) Gandhiji’s spending night on the platform
(c) Gandhiji’s travel by a train
(d) Gandhiji’s staying back in Africa
Ans. a
5. Gandhiji stayed back in South Africa
(a) to avenge himself on the Whites who had insulted him
(b) because his work was still not complete fight
(c) to against racial discrimination in Africa
(d) to build up an army and fight against the White people
Ans. c

 

Passage-70
Although a smiling face often disguises the mind and heart of villain, an indiscriminate generalisation of this phenomenon will do injustice to the innocent children whose faces bloom like flowers.

(Bank P.O.)
1. Which of the following is most nearly the same in meaning as the word ‘disguises as used in the sentence?
(a) proves
(c) reflects
(e) reveals
(b) hides
(d) conceals
Ans. d
2. The intention of the author seems to be
(a) to create a favourable opinion about people with smiling faces
(b) to forcefully defend the kind acts of villains
(c) to point out to an exception to the general rule
(d) to give justice to the generous actions of everyone
(e) to argue in favour of children who are sometimes guilty
Ans. e
3. The author of the sentence accepts the fact that
(a) the faces of the villains are never smiling
(b) the faces of innocent children are as pleasing as the flowers in bloom
(c) the faces of innocent children disguise ill acts
(d) all the things that appear most beautiful are the ugliest within
(e) generalisation is justifiable in this case indiscriminate an
Ans. b
4. Which of the following is most opposite indiscriminate as used in the sentence? or the Word
(a) selective
(b) broad
(c) conspicuous
(d) promiscuous
(e) undistinguished
Ans. a
5. The author feels that an generalisation of indiscriminate the phenomenon.
(a) should be done in all cases except children and flower
(b) would prevent villains from committing ill acts
(c) may lead good people to involve in ill actions
(d) would do justice to the children who are guilty
(e) would brand all people with smiling faces as villain
Ans. a

 

Passage-71

With the coming of the television, the radio no longer holds the same attraction for people as it did once. Yet somehow I have not quite reconciled myself to the idea of sitting in front of the TV, viewing it. I prefer the radio set, the good old box by your bedside. And here, again, the older and the larger the radio set the better for me. I do not like these new-fangled transistors.
May be, I am old-fashioned.
1. “I have not quite reconciled myself to……” implies that the person has not fully
(a) applied
(b) admitted
(c) accepted
(d) understood
Ans. c
2. The word ‘new-fangled’ suggests
(a) very complex
(b) recently assembled
(c) colourfully decorated
(d) newly come into fashion
Ans. d
3. The passage implies that the author
(a) has a liking for television
(b) dislikes radio sets
(c) prefers transistors to radio sets
(d) prefers radio sets to transistors and the television
Ans. d
4. A ‘slide-rule’ scientist is likely to be interested in
(a) spreading scientific knowledge among common- people
(b) diverting his energy in several channels
(c) depriving common people of scientific knowledge
(d) carrying on scientific research on stereotyped ideas
5. S.N. Bose’s scientific journal Bijnan Parichaya must have come out
(a) before 1947
(b) after 1947
(c) between 1947 and 1957
(d) after 1957

 

Passage – 23

S.N. Bose’s experimental skill was not confined to physics alone. His energy had been channelised in several directions. One direction in which his energy flowed consistently than in any other was the popularisation of science. In a newly independent country like India, determined to develop her industries as quickly as possible, there was every danger of leadership in scientific research falling into the hands of those whom C.P. Snow has called ‘slide-rule’ scientists. As a safeguard against this, even before independence, Bose found a scientific journal in Bengali, Bijnan Parichaya, to spread spread knowledge among the people. scientific common

1. Bose could allow his energy to flow successfully in several directions. Bose was thus
(a) a vivacious man
(b) an energetic man
(c) a versatile man
(d) a virulent man
2. S.N. Bose made a major contribution to the spread of scientific knowledge among common people
(a) by channelising his energies in several directions
(b) by consistently working for the popularisation of science
(c) by becoming a ‘slide-rule’ scientist
(d) by founding a scientific journal in Bengali
3. It is learnt from the passage that India, immediately after becoming independent, sought to progress
(a) by means of industrialisation
(b) by means of popularisation of science
(c) by encouraging scientists like S.N. Bose

(d) by offering the leadership of scientific research to slide-rule scientists

 

Passage – 24

Over all the countryside, wherever one goes, indications of technique are visible to the seeing eye. By technique is meant an exercise of skill acquired by practice and directed to a well- foreseen end. It is the name for the action of any of our powers after they have been so improved by training as to perform that action with certainty and success.
(C.D.S.)
1. The italicised phrase in the sentence “Over all the countryside, wherever one goes, indications of technique are visible to the seeing eye” implies
(a) seeing the particular characteristics of things
(b) seeing with a clear eyesight
(c) perception caused by understanding
(d) application of some special device for the analysis of the things seen

Ans. c
2. The most important aspect of ‘technique’, as defined in the passage, is the use of skill
(a) for handling tools and machines
(b) for an understanding of the
functions of tools and machinery
(c) for observation and analysis
(d) for a definite purpose
Ans. d
3. ‘Skill’ in this passage means
(a) ‘any of our powers’
(b) the ability to do things well by hand
(c) the ability to master techniques
(d) the ability that has been tested by experience which makes success sure
Ans. d
4. The definition of the word ‘technique’ as given in the passage, does not overemphasize
(a) scientific methods
(b) results
(c) theoretical knowledge
(d) practice and performance
Ans. a
5. The implied intention of the writer is to
(a) widen the scope of the term ‘technique’
(b) mock at the modern craze for gadgets
(c) reject the popular meaning of the term ‘technique’
(d) uphold the superiority of traditional techniques
Ans. a

 

Passage – 25

At this stage of the civilisation, when many nations are brought into close and vital contact for good and evil, it is essential, as never before, that their gross ignorance of one another should be diminished, that they should begin to understand a little of one another’s historical experience and resulting mentality. It is a fault of the English to expect the people of other countries to react as they do, to political and international situations. genuine goodwill Our and good intentions are often brought to nothing, because we expect other people to be like us. This would be corrected if we knew the history, not necessarily in detail but in broad outlines, of the social and political conditions which have given to each nation its present character. (CDS)
1. The need for a greater understanding
between nations
(a) will always be there
(b) is more today than ever before
(c) was always there
(d) is no longer there
Ans. b
2. According to the author the ‘mentality’ of a nation is mainly a product of its
(a) present character
(b) politics
(c) international position
(d) history
Ans. d
3. Englishmen like others to react to political situations like
(a) each other
(b) others
(c) themselves
(d) us
Ans. c
4. According to the author his countrymen should
(a) have vital contacts with other nations
(b) not react to other nations
(c) have a better understanding of other nations
(d) read the history of other nations
Ans. c
5. The character of a nation is the result of its
(a) socio-political conditions
(b) gross ignorance
(c) cultural heritage
(d) mentality
Ans. a

 

Passage – 26

If the census tells us that India has two or three hundred languages, it also tells us, I believe, that Germany has about fifty or sixty languages. I do not remember anyone pointing out this fact in proof of the disunity or disparity of Germany. As a matter of fact, a census mentions all manner of petty languages, sometimes spoken by a few thousand persons only; and often dialects are classed for scientific purposes as different languages. India seems to me to have surprisingly few languages, considering its area. Compared to the same area in Europe, it is far more closely allied in regard to language, but because of widespread illiteracy, common standards have not developed and dialects have formed. The principal languages of India are Hindustani (of the two varieties, Hindi and Urdu), Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada. If Assamese, Oriya, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Pushtu and Punjabi are added, the whole country is covered except for some hill and forest tribes. Of these, the Indo-Aryan languages, which cover the whole north, centre and west of India, are closely allied; and the southern Dravidian languages, though different, have been greatly influenced by Sanskrit, and are full of Sanskrit words.
1. In the passage the author
(a) compares India with Germany
(b) defends the multilingual situation of India
(c) criticises the illiteracy in India
(d) classifies the Indian languages
Ans. b
2. One of the reasons why there are
many dialects in India is
(a) vast area
(b) population
(c) more communities
(d) illiteracy
Ans. d
3. The Dravidian languages have been greatly influenced by Sanskrit. This
(a) makes them inferior to the Indo-Aryan languages
(b) makes them superior to the Indo-Aryan languages
(c) brings them close to the Indo-Aryan languages
(d) makes them very different from the other Indian languages
Ans. c
4. Which of the following statements is true according to the given passage?
(a) India has far too many languages
(b) India is a vast country with not too many languages
(c) India has as many languages as Europe does
(d) Indian languages are not as well developed as those of Europe
Ans. b

 

Passage – 27

Bansilal’s train was late and it reached Mumbai a little after midnight. It was his first visit to the city, and he didn’t know where to go. He thought he would go to a choultry where he would not have to pay rent, but he did not know how to find one at that hour. He asked a porter to get him a cheap room. The porter said that if Bansilal gave him three rupees, he would take him to one. But Bansilal waved him away and walked out of the station. He wandered through the streets and asked a number of people, but could not find a room cheap enough for him. He sat down on a park bench to think what he should do next. He as very tired and fell asleep on the bench. He woke up the next morning stiff in every limb-but he smiled when he realised that it was the cheapest night’s lodging that he had ever had.
1. In the passage, the word ‘choultry’ should mean
(a) a highway motel
(b) an expensive hotel
(c) a free resting place
(d) a roadside eating shop
Ans. c
2. The porter refused to help Bansilal because
(a) he refused to pay the porter any tips
(b) he spoke a language which the porter could not understand
(c) he had no previous acquaintance with the porter
(d) he was rude to the porter
Ans. a
3. Bansilal could not get any accommodation for the night because
(a) he wanted to spend the night in the open
(b) all the hotels in the city were closed
(c) all the hotel rooms were booked
(d) the hotels were too expensive for him to afford
Ans. d
4. The night long in the open
(a) did not affect him at all
(b) made his limbs stronger
(c) gave him aches all over his body
(d) refreshed Bansilal
Ans. c
5. From the passage, Bansilal emerges as
(a) a fun-loving person
(b) an adventure-seeking person
(c) an extravagant spender
(d) a thrifty person
Ans. d